Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 3 – Workshop time

The Oman fish biodiversity trip I am currently doing is nearly over. We spent the last days in a workshop at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat. The workshop focus was on “Bridging the gap between marine resource managers and research institutions in Oman and Australia”. Besides our team, the workshop was attended by Omani researchers and government officials, international researchers working in the region, and even by marine students from the university.

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Participants to the workshop at Sultan Qaboos University

With such a varied group of attending researchers and presenters, talks were bound to be interesting and go beyond the work I am familiar with. The first day focused on seas around Oman, its diversity and natural history. Since this was my first visit to Oman and I know very little about its marine life, there was a lot of interesting new information to absorb.

The Omani seas are fascinating for many reasons, but one of the things that really stuck with me was how big the environmental differences are in a relatively small area. The north of Oman has seas that get very hot, with a high salinity and a very different fauna and flora than the southern areas. The south of Oman has coral reefs, but also has a strong cold upwelling each summer. This upwelling is so strong that temporary kelp forests grow here in summer! I did not get to dive there this trip and the kelp has already disappeared this time of the year, but it would be fascinating to come back and dive in the Salalah area.

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Hussein Al Masroori talks about designing solutions to reduce ghost fishing by lost fish traps

The second day of the workshop moved from natural history to new monitoring techniques, and explored some of the regions nearby Oman. There was a thought-provoking (but sad) talk about the heavy impact of coral bleaching in the Arabian Gulf. Water temperatures in the summer of 2017 reached up to 36°C, and some areas lost more than 90% of coral cover! Our team members also presented some of their personal work, Joey talked about eDNA, Darren about monitoring biodiversity in the Red Sea, and Chris talked about how cryptobenthic fishes could be used a sensitive measure of changes in reef health.

In an interesting discussion afterwards, it became very clear that collaborating across different countries is more effective than just working as a loner. When experts in certain fields can share their work and skills with researchers that may not have the infrastructure or cannot get the training in the country they work, everyone benefits. Local researchers often have a very extensive knowledge and valuable insights that visiting researchers just don’t have. As visitors, we can offer a new perspective and stimulate new ideas to help push the boundaries of knowledge.

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Sultan Qaboos University. Photo source: www.squ.edu.om

People like Joey and Alyssa, who stimulate these kind of collaborations, are the ones that (in my humble opinion) will make the biggest difference to marine science. Not just to improve our understanding of the ocean, but also to improve how we can sustainable use the ocean, or protect the areas and species that need it most.

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Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 2 – Meet the team

In the previous blog I wrote how I joined a great team of researchers to study fish diversity in Oman. The scientists I’m working with are experts in their fields, and form a very complimentary group, perfect to be studying fish diversity with. It’s fantastic to be collaborating with them, especially since this kind of work is new to me, which means I am learning loads at the moment! So it’s only fair to introduce the people that are really driving this trip.

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Ms. Amanda Hay: Amanda is Acting Ichthyology Collection Manager at the Australian Museum. She is a taxonomy expert, specialised in larval fishes. While she considers herself a jack-of-all-trades, she is the most organised member of the team who makes sure all the fish are named and catalogued properly.

 

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Dr. Chris Goatley: Chris is a postdoctoral research fellow at University of New England who specialises in reef fish ecology. In particular, Chris is interested in the ecology of the smallest coral reef fishes, including gobies and blennies. He is particularly interested in the roles of these small fishes in maintaining coral reef food webs.

 

DarrenDr. Darren Coker:  Darren is a Research Scientist in the Red Sea Research Center and Saudi Aramco-KAUST center for Marine Environmental Observations at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia. Here he focuses on reef fish communities along environmental gradients and how local and global stresses influence fish groups that are important to reef health.

Alyssa MarshellDr. Alyssa Marshell: Alyssa is an Assistant Professor in the College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University. She is on of the lead investigators on the DFAT CAAR grant that funds this research project. Alyssa is an expert in marine and spatial ecology, with particular interests in the movement and behaviour of herbivorous reef fishes.

JoeyDr. Joey DiBattista: Joey is the new Curator of Ichthyology at the Australian Museum and standing member of the TrEnD Lab at Curtin University. Joey is the other lead investigator on this research project. His name might sound familiar if you follow this blog, since he has written a very interesting guest blog in the past. Joey is interested in developing next generation-sequencing tools to aid in  fisheries management. His new position role at the museum will allow him to build up genetic “barcode” libraries for fishes across Australia.

These are not the only team members working on this project, other researchers involved include remote marine field specialist Tane Sinclair-Taylor, PhD student Mark Priest, and Director of the Red Sea Research Center at KAUST – Professor Michael Berumen. Their contribution is at least as important as the other members, but they are unfortunately not close enough at the moment to hassle them for info.

Lastly, the newest, honorary member of the team is our Musandam captain Ali! Ali owns  Ras Mudandam Diver, the dive centre that was taking us out for our work here. He’s been an absolute legend, and if you’re considering diving here, you should definitely look him up!

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Captain Ali

 

 

Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 1

Great news, I am on the road again for a new fieldwork adventure! Three days ago I left Perth to join a great team of researchers for a week of marine science action in Oman. I will try to post a few updates as we go along, much in the same way as during my last fieldwork trip.

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On our way to the Musandam reefs

The trip is organised Dr. Joey DiBattista and Dr. Alyssa Marshell, as a collaboration between the Australian Museum and the Department of Marine Sciences and Fisheries at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Joey and Alyssa received funding from the council for Australian-Arab Relations (CAAR) to study the fish biodiversity in Oman and to develop methods to monitor that fish diversity more efficiently. Ultimately, the goal of our work here is to support the management of marine resources in the region.

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Khasab – Musandam. Photo: Chris Goatley

Most of the trip consists of diving in different places across the country. I am writing this blog in Musandam, a stunningly beautiful area in the north of the country. We are surveying fish, collecting fish and water samples for genetic research, and testing new methods to collect environmental DNA. We will be working here a few more days before flying back to Muscat.

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Musandam water looking fine! Photo: Chris Goatley

The last leg of our trip is dedicated to a workshop in the Sultan Qaboos University During the workshop, local and Australian scientists will give presentations on their work, and most of us will also present some of our own work that might be of interest to researchers in the region. I’m very much looking forward to the discussions and ideas that will come out of this workshop, they’re one of the more exciting aspects of these kind of research trips!

Well, that and the diving and exploring parts of course 😉

Keep an eye on the blog in the coming days, I’ll post a few updates as we go along!

 

Leafy seadragons: Australia’s favourite fish

In a recent poll organised by the Australian Society for Fish Biology and Lateral Magazine, the Leafy Seadragon (Phycodurus eques) was voted as Australia’s favourite fish. This exquisite critter definitely deserves its place at the top, to celebrate it amazingness I wrote a blog about it. This blog appeared originally as an article in Lateral Magazine, you can find the original version here.


According to the popular stereotype, marine biologists spend their careers diving on colourful coral reefs, cuddling dolphins, and wrestling sharks. Unfortunately, the truth is a lot more mundane; we are more likely to spend our days diving into data analyses, cuddling too many cups of coffee, and wrestling grant proposals.

But sometimes we get lucky enough to work with animals that exceed the wildest stereotypes. Studying marine life is always exciting, but some animals are so unique they just stop you in your tracks; they make you thank your lucky stars for not listening to your mother when she said ‘marine biologist’ was not a real job.

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Two leafy seadragons. Photo credit: David Harasti

For me, the ultimate awe-inspiring fish is the leafy seadragon (Phycodurus eques). “Leafies” only occur in temperate waters off southern Australia, and they are, to say the very least, unique animals — the kind that makes you wonder whether evolution had a stroke of brilliance or just a stroke. Seadragons belong to the Syngnathidae family, which also includes seahorses and pipefishes. Even in a family that is known for their oddly-shaped members, leafies stand out big-time.

These beautiful fish have the head of a seahorse and the body of a seaweed, with flamboyant leaf-like protrusions that wouldn’t look out of place at the Carnival in Rio de Janeiro. Leafy seadragons defy the idea of what a fish should look like.

Maybe that is why they are so popular with fish enthusiasts all over the world. Scuba divers fly halfway across the globe to dive in the cold waters off southern Australia, hoping to catch a glimpse of them. In the few public aquaria that display them, including Melbourne Aquarium, leafies are one of the absolute crowd-pleasers. For fish-lovers, this Australian endemic fish is at least as iconic as kangaroos or koalas.

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Leafy seadragon. Photo credit: Tony Brown

Despite their popularity, we know surprisingly little about leafy seadragons. Adult leafies are one of the largest members of the Syngnathidae family, with adults measuring up to 35cm. Like seahorses, male seadragons carry their mating partner’s fertilised eggs; unlike seahorses, they do not have a pouch. Instead, females lay their eggs on the underside of the male’s tail, where they remain until hatching.

Leafy seadragons depend on kelp and seagrass beds as their habitat, where they blend in supremely well to avoid predators. Unfortunately, these habitats are in decline all over the world, including in Australia, caused by coastal development and potentially climate change. As a result, seadragon population numbers are decreasing, although the species is currently not considered to be endangered.

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Admiring a Weedy seadragon, a close cousin of the Leafy seadragon. Photo credit: Greg Lecoeur

One would assume that the decreasing population numbers of a unique Australian emblem would inspire multitudes of researchers to study it. Strangely, this is not the case. A search of the scientific literature suggests that nobody has studied them in the wild for almost a decade. This lack of research on evolutionary distinct marine critters is unfortunately not unique to seadragons. It extends to many other species that do not fit in the ‘food’, ‘danger’, or ‘Pixar-famous’ categories in which landlubbers like to divide marine life. If so little attention is paid to the struggles of Australia’s most recognisable and charismatic fish, then what hope do other species have?

Time will tell what the future holds for the leafy seadragon. I, for one, am doing what I can to ensure generations after ours will continue to have their minds boggled by this incredible animal. If you care about seadragons, one way to help is to join citizen science projects such as iNaturalist or Seagrass Spotter. These projects collect observations from divers and snorkellers, directly helping scientists better understand and protect these animals and their habitats.


A short note about this blog: Two weeks after the poll I was awarded a research grant by the Sea World Research and Rescue Foundation to study the seadragons using eDNA. Hopefully the results that will come out of this research will help to better understand and protect these beautiful fishes.