New research project: diversity in Wallacea

A few weeks ago I wrote about starting an exciting new project at the University of Leeds. At the time I didn’t go into details, but now that I’m a few months in and I am starting to understand what is going, so it’s time to enlighten you as well.

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Coral reef critter research coming up!

For the next two years I’m part of a team that will study marine biodiversity on coral reefs in central Indonesia. The overarching goal of of the project is to improve the management and conservation of coral reefs by discovering how impacts such as pollution or overfishing change the way coral reefs function. After all, the best way to start solving a problem is by properly understanding it.

Obviously, there’s a lot more to it than the lofty big goal as the title of the project indicates: “Gradients of marine biodiversity and linkages with eDNA across the Wallacea Region”. There are two components to the project: traditional visual surveys and environmental DNA (“eDNA”) surveys. We will use both methods to create ecological networks and see how they differ when they are threatened by different impacts.

At this point you might be asking a few (logical) questions:

  • Where is the Wallacea region and why do you go there?
  • What is eDNA?
  • What is an ecological network?
  • Why should I care? I came to this site to read about critters!

The Wallacea region is the central part of Indonesia, from Lombok eastward almost all the way to Papua, and up all the way to Halmahera (check out the map below). It was named after Alfred Russel Wallace, the scientist who, together with Darwin, developed the theory of evolution. The region represents an interesting boundary area where fauna and flora from the Asian and Australian continents meet. So it is home to some amazing wildlife, but also to a large human population that depends on natural resources to survive. The marine diversity in the region has not been studied very well (except for a few local exceptions), so finding out how healthy the marine ecosystems are is quite important.

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The Wallacea Region

Environmental DNA (eDNA for short), is a relatively new method to detect species. I have written about it extensively here if you want a long explanation and background. The method detects tiny fragments of DNA in the water column that are shed through poop, mucus, etc. By filtering and analysing a scoop of water, we can tell what animals (and plants, microbes, etc) live in the water nearby. It’s pretty powerful and very exciting, but still needs a lot of additional testing to know just how precise it is compared to other survey methods.

I will then build ecological network models with all the data we collect. The easiest way to imagine what those are, is to see them as a different kind of food web. Where food webs focus on who eats who, we are more interested in who lives close to who, and who interacts with who. In the ideal situation I will include all the information on fish, corals, algae, invertebrates (crabs, sea stars, etc.) in one big model which will show how they rely on each other. More importantly, it will also show what happens with the networks if sites are overfished or polluted and how that differs from untouched sites.

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Example of an interaction network on land, figure by Bohal et al. 2013. Source here.

So yes, my job for the next few years is less critter-focused than before, but it doesn’t mean I will be ignoring them! Besides the obvious fact that there’s a lot of cool critters to be found on the coral reefs I’ll be visiting, I am still involved in a few very cool projects on the side. It’s too early to go into details, but more seahorse and seadragon work is coming up, and even some exciting pygmy seahorse news as well! I’ll regularly be posting updates on the Wallacea project, as well as more critter features, so stay tuned 🙂

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Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 3 – Workshop time

The Oman fish biodiversity trip I am currently doing is nearly over. We spent the last days in a workshop at the Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat. The workshop focus was on “Bridging the gap between marine resource managers and research institutions in Oman and Australia”. Besides our team, the workshop was attended by Omani researchers and government officials, international researchers working in the region, and even by marine students from the university.

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Participants to the workshop at Sultan Qaboos University

With such a varied group of attending researchers and presenters, talks were bound to be interesting and go beyond the work I am familiar with. The first day focused on seas around Oman, its diversity and natural history. Since this was my first visit to Oman and I know very little about its marine life, there was a lot of interesting new information to absorb.

The Omani seas are fascinating for many reasons, but one of the things that really stuck with me was how big the environmental differences are in a relatively small area. The north of Oman has seas that get very hot, with a high salinity and a very different fauna and flora than the southern areas. The south of Oman has coral reefs, but also has a strong cold upwelling each summer. This upwelling is so strong that temporary kelp forests grow here in summer! I did not get to dive there this trip and the kelp has already disappeared this time of the year, but it would be fascinating to come back and dive in the Salalah area.

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Hussein Al Masroori talks about designing solutions to reduce ghost fishing by lost fish traps

The second day of the workshop moved from natural history to new monitoring techniques, and explored some of the regions nearby Oman. There was a thought-provoking (but sad) talk about the heavy impact of coral bleaching in the Arabian Gulf. Water temperatures in the summer of 2017 reached up to 36°C, and some areas lost more than 90% of coral cover! Our team members also presented some of their personal work, Joey talked about eDNA, Darren about monitoring biodiversity in the Red Sea, and Chris talked about how cryptobenthic fishes could be used a sensitive measure of changes in reef health.

In an interesting discussion afterwards, it became very clear that collaborating across different countries is more effective than just working as a loner. When experts in certain fields can share their work and skills with researchers that may not have the infrastructure or cannot get the training in the country they work, everyone benefits. Local researchers often have a very extensive knowledge and valuable insights that visiting researchers just don’t have. As visitors, we can offer a new perspective and stimulate new ideas to help push the boundaries of knowledge.

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Sultan Qaboos University. Photo source: www.squ.edu.om

People like Joey and Alyssa, who stimulate these kind of collaborations, are the ones that (in my humble opinion) will make the biggest difference to marine science. Not just to improve our understanding of the ocean, but also to improve how we can sustainable use the ocean, or protect the areas and species that need it most.

Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 2 – Meet the team

In the previous blog I wrote how I joined a great team of researchers to study fish diversity in Oman. The scientists I’m working with are experts in their fields, and form a very complimentary group, perfect to be studying fish diversity with. It’s fantastic to be collaborating with them, especially since this kind of work is new to me, which means I am learning loads at the moment! So it’s only fair to introduce the people that are really driving this trip.

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Ms. Amanda Hay: Amanda is Acting Ichthyology Collection Manager at the Australian Museum. She is a taxonomy expert, specialised in larval fishes. While she considers herself a jack-of-all-trades, she is the most organised member of the team who makes sure all the fish are named and catalogued properly.

 

Chris

Dr. Chris Goatley: Chris is a postdoctoral research fellow at University of New England who specialises in reef fish ecology. In particular, Chris is interested in the ecology of the smallest coral reef fishes, including gobies and blennies. He is particularly interested in the roles of these small fishes in maintaining coral reef food webs.

 

DarrenDr. Darren Coker:  Darren is a Research Scientist in the Red Sea Research Center and Saudi Aramco-KAUST center for Marine Environmental Observations at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia. Here he focuses on reef fish communities along environmental gradients and how local and global stresses influence fish groups that are important to reef health.

Alyssa MarshellDr. Alyssa Marshell: Alyssa is an Assistant Professor in the College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University. She is on of the lead investigators on the DFAT CAAR grant that funds this research project. Alyssa is an expert in marine and spatial ecology, with particular interests in the movement and behaviour of herbivorous reef fishes.

JoeyDr. Joey DiBattista: Joey is the new Curator of Ichthyology at the Australian Museum and standing member of the TrEnD Lab at Curtin University. Joey is the other lead investigator on this research project. His name might sound familiar if you follow this blog, since he has written a very interesting guest blog in the past. Joey is interested in developing next generation-sequencing tools to aid in  fisheries management. His new position role at the museum will allow him to build up genetic “barcode” libraries for fishes across Australia.

These are not the only team members working on this project, other researchers involved include remote marine field specialist Tane Sinclair-Taylor, PhD student Mark Priest, and Director of the Red Sea Research Center at KAUST – Professor Michael Berumen. Their contribution is at least as important as the other members, but they are unfortunately not close enough at the moment to hassle them for info.

Lastly, the newest, honorary member of the team is our Musandam captain Ali! Ali owns  Ras Mudandam Diver, the dive centre that was taking us out for our work here. He’s been an absolute legend, and if you’re considering diving here, you should definitely look him up!

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Captain Ali

 

 

Marine biodiversity in Oman: Mini-blog 1

Great news, I am on the road again for a new fieldwork adventure! Three days ago I left Perth to join a great team of researchers for a week of marine science action in Oman. I will try to post a few updates as we go along, much in the same way as during my last fieldwork trip.

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On our way to the Musandam reefs

The trip is organised Dr. Joey DiBattista and Dr. Alyssa Marshell, as a collaboration between the Australian Museum and the Department of Marine Sciences and Fisheries at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Joey and Alyssa received funding from the council for Australian-Arab Relations (CAAR) to study the fish biodiversity in Oman and to develop methods to monitor that fish diversity more efficiently. Ultimately, the goal of our work here is to support the management of marine resources in the region.

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Khasab – Musandam. Photo: Chris Goatley

Most of the trip consists of diving in different places across the country. I am writing this blog in Musandam, a stunningly beautiful area in the north of the country. We are surveying fish, collecting fish and water samples for genetic research, and testing new methods to collect environmental DNA. We will be working here a few more days before flying back to Muscat.

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Musandam water looking fine! Photo: Chris Goatley

The last leg of our trip is dedicated to a workshop in the Sultan Qaboos University During the workshop, local and Australian scientists will give presentations on their work, and most of us will also present some of our own work that might be of interest to researchers in the region. I’m very much looking forward to the discussions and ideas that will come out of this workshop, they’re one of the more exciting aspects of these kind of research trips!

Well, that and the diving and exploring parts of course 😉

Keep an eye on the blog in the coming days, I’ll post a few updates as we go along!