Finding the Knysna Seahorse: Mini-blog 6

I feel like I only just arrived in South Africa to look for endangered seahorses, but instead I am flying to Johannesburg where I will catch a connecting flight to Perth. This trip was no different than other fieldwork trips in that regard: what looks like a long time of sampling at the planning stage just flies by before you know it.

Louw and me have been busy since the last mini-blog. Most importantly, we successfully finished sampling! The last locations were less explored areas than the first ones, which is very exciting. Even if we do not find seahorses in these spots, they give inspiration to come back for new research projects.

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Cormorant in Jongensfontein

After wrapping up the sampling we visited Stellenbosch University. The university is the home to the von der Heyden Lab, which specialises on genetic research for conservation and biodiversity planning. They also have an eDNA project which investigates fish diversity in South Africa. During our visit I gave a talk about my own research to the marine students in the university. It was great to share my love for strange critters, especially since the students had some very relevant questions at the end of the talk. As much as I enjoy talking (or writing) about my research, it’s even more fun to have a conversation about it and getting a fresh look through someone else’s eyes.

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South African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) taking a stroll

In the last two days of the trip we relaxed, caught up with friends, and explored Cape Town and False Bay. The highlights were definitely diving in the kelp forests of Simonstown and visiting the nearby African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) colony. While I have dived in cold water before, I never had the pleasure of seeing this particular ecosystem. If you ever have the opportunity, I can highly recommend it!

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Kelp diving

If a coral reef dive is like swimming through an underwater flower garden, kelp diving would be the equivalent of walking through a forest. There’s something very special about weaving your way through underwater plants that reach from he bottom all the way to the surface. The sunlight is filtered and the canopy above creates shadows you just do not get in other kinds of diving. On top of that, the bottom is very rich with all kinds of life. There are plenty of invertebrates like sea urchins, featherstars and nudibranchs. The fish life is very different than what I am used to, the small pufadder shysharks (Haploblepharus edwardsii) only live in South Africa area and are the cutest little things. To top it off, two southern right whales passe by close to shore as we were exiting the water. Louw even managed to snorkel out and catch a glimpse of them!

I guess it’s safe to say that this trip has been a successful one. It will be another few months before we will have all the results, but I am very excited to discover in which places we found the elusive Knysna seahorse!

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Not a bad spot for a dive…

 

Finding the Knysna Seahorse: Mini-blog 5

It’s already been a week since I arrived in South Africa to study the endangered Knysna seahorse with Dr. Louw Claassens from the Knysna Basin Project. Together we are testing if environmental DNA (eDNA) can be used to find rare seahorses and pipefishes.

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eDNA filtering in progress

To do this, we have been travelling along the southern coast of South Africa, taking water samples along the way in estuaries where our focal species lives, where it used to live, or where it might live. Yesterday we left Knysna to sample water in Klein Brak and Groot Brak. We are especially interested in the Klein Brak estuary, since there are multiple anecdotes that the Knysna seahorse (Hippocampus capensis) used to live here. Nobody has checked recently if it really was the Knysna seahorses and it seems that the most recent sighting has been many years ago. Because of this, it is usually assumed that there are no more Knysna seahorses in Klein Brak.

This brings me to a very important (maybe the most important?) question about this whole endeavour: WHY are we actually doing this? It’s all good an well to say that we want to help these endangered animals, but what exactly are we hoping to achieve? What will our results mean for managing the endangered Knysna seahorse, the critically endangered Estuarine pipefish, or any other endangered small fish for that matter?

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Knysna estuary, just imagine all the seahorses down there!

What we are hoping to achieve can be summarised in three main points.

  1. We want to test if the eDNA method can really be used to find small, endangered fishes (particularly seahorses and their relatives). So far, previous research has shown that eDNA work on large fishes such as sawfish, but it is not sure yet if this will work for seahorses, which are obviously much smaller.
  2. The best case scenario would be that we could also find seahorses in estuaries where it was thought to have disappeared. This would be great news for the conservation status for the species, as it would mean that it occurs in a wider area than we thought, which would mean that it is less likely to go extinct.
  3. If this would happen, it would mean two things. First of all, the new locations would have to be studied, so we can find out how many live in these estuaries. It would also mean that those new places need extra protection and monitoring to ensure the species do not disappear from their newly discovered homes.

Ultimately, if the eDNA method works for small, endangered seahorses (or their relatives), it could be used to monitor small fishes worldwide. This would help solving one of the biggest problems with studying small species, especially those that are rare or hard to find.

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Louw looking for Knysna seahorses in the Thesen Island Marina (she found 3!)

Finding the Knysna Seahorse: Mini-blog 1

Yesterday I wrote about the exciting projects that are coming up, one of which looks at the Knysna Seahorse (Hippocampus capensis). The next two weeks I will be in the south of South Africa, where my friend Louw and I will to try to learn more about this endangered species. I promised I would try to give you frequent updates about what is going on, so here is the first of this fieldwork-mini-blog series.

I am extremely lucky that I get to travel to amazing places for my work, but sometimes the traveling alone is almost as much adventure as the actual work. Last night’s flight was late (not too much, just over an hour), but it meant that I’d struggle to make my connecting flight. It turned out there was no need to worry, since the domestic flight I was supposed to take had been cancelled altogether! Luckily I got a place on a different flight a few hours later (with “Mango Air”) which brought me to my final destination, George. In George I got picked up by Louw, and after a minor struggle to get all our equipment in the car, we drove off to the first fieldwork location, another 5 hour drive from the airport.

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Arrival in George, with the very orange plane of Mango Air

Which brings us to the reason why we are doing this project, the Knysna seahorse. This species is quite special, but not necessarily for the right reasons. It only occurs in a few estuaries in the very southern tip of South Africa, in the Knysna region. Since it is so isolated, and only occurs in so few places, any environmental impacts can have a big effect on the species. Because of this unique situation, the species is listed as “Endangered” in the IUCN Red List.

You might be wondering “That’s all fine, but what are you two going to do about it?”. The main goal of this project is to figure out exactly WHERE the seahorses live, and if there are places where they are present that might have been overlooked in the past. Finding (or just as important, NOT finding) these new places are important for managing this species. We will do this not by diving and looking for them, but by using a shiny new method called “Environmental DNA” (or “eDNA” for short).

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The eDNA mobile

I will explain what exactly eDNA is in a future blog, but we will basically be scooping up water and then filtering that water to find traces of seahorse DNA. These traces will tell us whether or not seahorses are present in the estuary we just visited. The benefit of this method is that there is no need to go in the water, where it is easy to miss camouflaged species like seahorses. It also avoids using other, more destructive methods, like using fish poison to find out what is around you.

Exciting things ahead

I may not have been blogging much recently, but a lot has happened in the last few months. First and foremost, I completed and handed in my PhD-thesis. Since then I have been teaching, writing grant and job applications, and I’ve had a nice long holiday relaxing and traveling in Europe and diving in Indonesia.

In all honesty, handing in my PhD-thesis isn’t really news anymore since it’s been almost four months ago. That does not change anything about how happy and relieved I am that I managed to finish this epic project. Although this happiness might also have a slight tinge of regret as it means the end of more than 3 fantastic years of being absorbed by something that I love doing very much. By now I have also received the examiners’ comments back from my thesis, which were very positive, meaning that the whole process of finalising the PhD might be even quicker than I’d really like to.

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Yours truly during my PhD-presentation, very happy days!

Why quicker than I’d like to? Mostly because it means I have to find a job now! I really, really like doing research, especially when it involves little critters or sandy ocean floors. So I will try my very best to keep on doing research on this, but post-PhD research jobs (so called “post-docs”) are hard to come by. Even harder when you study sand and animals that look like sand 😉 So I have been applying for positions all over the world, ranging from Australia, to Germany, the UK, Indonesia, etc.

This is all very exciting, since I might literally end up anywhere in the world. But as you can imagine, it also means a fair amount of insecurity of what life will look like in a few months time. The excitement about new projects and adventure always wins over the worries though 😀

But, just in case you’d happen to know someone who is looking for a researcher who knows his way around Southeast Asia, soft sediment, and cryptobenthic fauna, do give me a ring 😉

There are more exciting thing going on than just job-hunting! As a matter of fact, August will be a pretty busy, action-packed month. At the moment I am in Perth airport, almost ready to fly to South Africa. As you may or may not remember, a few months ago we (my friend Louw and me) received a grant from the Mohammed bin Zayed Species Conservation Fund to conduct research on the endangered Knysna Seahorse (Hippocampus capensis). We have been working behind the scenes and preparing since, but now it is finally time to do the fieldwork portion of the work!

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The species we’ll be studying: the Knysna seahorse (Hippocampus capensis)

To try and give everyone who is interested an idea  of what marine science fieldwork is like, I am planning to blog frequently during the next 2 weeks. No promises about just of frequently, but I will do my very best to document trip and give you an insight of what it’s  like (for me) to do the data collecting that is behind most of the stories I share here.

If you do not want to miss anything, you can always follow the blog (there’s a button on the site somewhere), you don’t need an account, you can just get the updates via email. Alternatively, I’ll try to post (almost) daily pictures on Instagram (crittersresearch) and Twitter (@DeBrauwerM) as well if you can’t be bothered reading and just want to see what it all looks like.