Flamboyant Cuttlefish

It’s been a long time since I put a critter in the spotlights, so it’s time for one of my personal favourites: the Flamboyant Cuttlefish! I am definitely not the only one to like this amazing little animal, for most divers it is high in the top 10 of critters to see. With good reason as well, Flamboyant Cuttlefish are one of the most beautiful and intriguing inhabitants of sandy dive sites.


Flamboyant Cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) striking a pose

The small cephalopod many divers call “Flamboyant Cuttlefish” are in fact two species: the Flamboyant Cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) and the Paintpot Cuttlefish (Metasepia tullbergi). The first one lives in Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the north of Australia. The Paintpot Cuttlefish is found further north, from the Gulf of Thailand all the way up to southern Japan. Both species are classic muck dive critters, they only occur on muddy or sandy bottoms, so you will have to move away from coral reef to encounter them.

flamboyant-cuttlefish3So why does this animal deserve the effort of searching sandy plains for days on end, in the hope catching a glimpse of it? To start with (the name is a bit of a give-away) they are very flamboyant critters. We are talking yellows, pinks, blacks and whites, all at once! If that wasn’t enough, they often change their colours into “traveling waves”, even more so than normal cuttlefish or octopuses. From my experience, smaller Flamboyant Cuttlefishes have the brightest colours and make the most extravagant displays. When I write small, I do mean really small: adults do not grow much bigger than 8cm. They ideally sized Flamboyant Cuttlefish for the best colour-show  would be around 3-5 cm!

If finding an animal that size seems difficult, you might also want to consider the following. When they are not disturbed, hunting, or mating, Flamboyant Cuttlefish are anything but flamboyant. In their “standard” state, they blend in perfectly with their background, so they will be a mottled grey, brown, or black. For this reason some divers or photographers are tempted to disturb the animal to better see its colours. It is obvious that this is a bad idea, as it will stress out the cuttlefish. Be patient  instead, observe it for a while and you might even be rewarded by seeing it hunt small shrimp, lay eggs, or even mate!

Another thing that is special about them is that they do not swim, but walk across the bottom. To do so they use two of their arms and an adaptation of their mantle. They can swim, but only do so when they’re startled and over short distances. I could easily spend an entire dive watching these guys wander across the seafloor, little blobs of colour on a quest to eat as many shrimp as possible. It might be because of the awkward way they walk, but I always imagine them to be mildly grumpy animals. A bit like an old man with stiff joints who can’t walk that well, grumbling to himself about how the terrible weather…


A juvenile Flamboyant cuttlefish (M. pfefferi) walking across the rubble

An interesting mystery surrounding these animals is whether or not they are toxic. Their colours would suggest some form of aposematic colouration, in the same way nudibranchs advertise their toxicity with bright colours. Some authors have even suggested flamboyant cuttlefish might mimic nudibranchs such as the Ocellate Phyllidia (Phyllidia ocellata). I have however, not read a single bit of conclusive evidence of this. It seems to be one of these “facts” people have assumed, written about and then it just got copied. To date there seem to be no papers out their describing whether or not Flamboyant Cuttlefish really are toxic, and which toxin they would produce. If anyone would have come across that information, I would be very grateful if you could share it with me and the rest of the world.

As is often the case with small critters, we don’t know very much about them. But that doesn’t have to stop us enjoying looking at them. Which is why I couldn’t resist adding a video of one of these guys. The title is a bit too sensational, but the footage is great, enjoy!



Critters in the cold


Squid during nightdive in Camp Cove (Photo: Greg Lecoeur)

I have been back in Perth for well over a month now and it had been close to two months without diving, so I was starting to get anxious to get back in the water. I don’t really have the time to go abroad at the moment, so I jumped on the opportunity to do a short trip to Sydney. A good friend (Greg Lecoeur) had an extended stopover before flying to Europe and asked me if I wanted to join him to find and photograph the elusive Weedy Seadragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus). Not only would it mean interesting dives, it also gave me the opportunity to catch up with another friend (the amazing Emma Camp) who does some great research at the University of Technology Sydney. The departure of the trip was a bit rushed but I managed to bring everything, except for my actual camera. Luckily both Emma and Greg are great underwater photographers, so I could enjoy the dives and get better pictures than I could ever take of them, win-win!

The waters around Sydney might be a lot colder than what I am used to, but they do offer some sweet diving and a lot of really interesting critters. The best known and most sought after critters in temperate waters in Australia are without a doubt the Seadragons. Seadragons are endemic to Australia (=found nowhere else) and only live in its southern, colder waters. Two species exist within reach of divers: The Weedy Seadragon (Phyllopteryx taeniolatus) and the Leafy Seadragon (Phycodurus eques). We went looking for the Weedy Seadragon, as the leafy variety is only found further south. I had been told where to look and that there were a lot more interesting critters to find, but when looking for critters it’s always a good idea to have a local guide. Through a friend I got in touch with a very keen local diver who knows the waters around Sydney better than anyone. Andrew (check his site here) kindly offered to take us diving and promised us dragons and much more.


Checking out a gorgeous Weedy Seadragon (Photo: Greg Lecoeur)

Our first dives were in the southern part of Botany Bay, Kurnell is known as one of the most reliable spots for seadragons. After the shock of hopping in 16 degrees cold water (I’m used to nearly double!) I managed to have a look around and appreciate the site. Descent visibility, kelp, rocks, sand and critters, what more do you need? After a mere 15 minutes Andrew delivered on his promise and showed us a beautiful seadragon. We would find a total of 7 that day! They really are amazing and stunningly beautiful animals. While they are related to seahorses and pipefishes, they are still very different. They are quite a bit larger and seem to be the result of a crazy drunk night between pipefishes, seahorses and some strands of kelp. Our presence did not seem to bother them at all, most of the ones we saw were happily pretending to be kelp and didn’t even stop feeding when we came in close for a good look.

Pygmy pipehorse

Find the critter, a Sydney Pygmy Pipehorse (Photo: Greg Lecoeur)

We found some other members of the seahorse/pipefish family that day. Besides a Potbelly Seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis), Andrew also showed us some Sydney Pygmy Pipehorses (Idiotropiscis lumnitzeri). I was under the impression Pipehorses were a tropics only kind of family, but was happy to be proven wrong. This particular species is only found in the greater Sydney area, but is closely related to the ones I was observing in Dauin and Lembeh. They are at least as beautiful as their tropical cousins and in my opinion a lot braver for spending their days in the cold water. That cold water made Emma and me cut the second dive a bit short, diving in Sydney is all fun and games until someone gets hypothermia.

Pyjama Squid

The beautiful Pyjama Squid (Photo: Greg Lecoeur)

Our second dive day started at Bare Island. I only went for a short dive, but saw 3 juvenile frogfish! What’s more, they were Painted Frogfish (Antennarius pictus), which I also (wrongfully) assumed to be found in the tropics only. It’s funny how after nearly two years of studying critters there is still a LOT I can learn about them. That evening Greg and me went for a night dive at Camp Cove to find a little guy I had been dying to see for years, the Pyjama Squid (Sepioloidea lineolata). The site is a pure muckdive: a calm bay, no structures to speak of, just sand with a smattering of seagrass and some bits and pieces of debris. Needless to say I had a great time in that kind of environment, as would any other diver who likes critters. We found nearly a dozen Pyjama Squid, the first one about 20 seconds after we put our heads down! They are the cutest little things and pretty much nothing is known about them, I might have to consider them for my next project 🙂  We also found a lot of other critters: Bobtail Squid, a juvenile Hairy Frogfish, Toadfish, Bottletail Squid,… Basically everything a muckdiver could want.

Conclusion: Sydney is a sweet place to dive, both for muck and other kinds of diving. But beware of the very real risk of hypothermia (as Emma can attest to), especially if you are doing long dives and not moving much. So bring your warmest wetsuit, tea/coffee for surface intervals and most importantly, don’t forget your camera!


Ethical issues in Underwater Photography

During my PhD I have written and talked a lot about the value of scuba diving and particularly of muck diving. Dive tourism often provides an income to communities who have limited sustainable alternatives to make a living. Over the last years, there have been big changes in dive tourism, such as the increasing popularity of underwater photography. Muck diving in particular has a large portion of divers who use underwater cameras: I found out that on average 73% of people visiting muck dive destinations use a camera of some sort.

More people using cameras underwater can be a good thing. Photographers often spend more time and money in dive locations, meaning a higher income for local communities. Having a lot of photos taken underwater can directly help science by giving us information about species distribution (via initiatives like iSeahorse) or even by helping researchers discover new species (the story of the “Lembeh Seadragon“). Finally, more beautiful photos of ocean critters can help conservation by creating awareness with people who would otherwise never go near the ocean.

Kyonemichthys rumengani

The “Lembeh Seadragon” (Kyonemichthys rumengani) was first brought to the attention of scientists by underwater photographers.      Photo: Maarten De Brauwer

However, there are some serious issues with the use of cameras under water. Using an extra tool while diving is distracting and often leads to poor buoyancy control. Multiple studies have looked at the effects of divers who use cameras on coral reefs, and it is very clear that photographers cause more damage on coral reefs than divers without cameras. Possible solutions for this problem include buoyancy training, good dive briefings that create awareness with the divers, and attentive dive guides who can adjust diver behaviour before too much damage is done.

Another problem with underwater photography is that it is a goal-driven and therefore often competitive activity. Photographers want to see rare species, shoot interesting behaviour or get a unique shot that will impress fellow divers in off- and online communities. But the reality is that rare species are hard to find and often really shy. You have to be lucky to observe eye-catching behaviour and it takes a lot of skill to get creative shots underwater. The desire for beautiful pictures too often leads to divers trying to “force” a photo to happen, and forcing wildlife is never a good idea.

This is not just an issue with underwater photography, it happens on land as well. In 2010 a Wildlife photographer of the year lost his title when it became clear he faked his winning shot. In India, the bad behaviour of tourists trying to take pictures of tigers has led to the creation of a guidebook for ethical wildlife photography. There are worse stories out there and this article explains just how bad “getting that perfect shot” can get.

Underwater wildlife photography has its own specific problems. Unlike terrestrial photography, divers can often get within touching distance of the species they want to photograph. At that point it is often very difficult to resist the temptation not to touch or harass the animal. There are many reasons why you shouldn’t, and you’ll find most of them explained clearly here. Luckily most fish, especially the bigger species like sharks or manta rays can swim off when things get too crazy, but this doesn’t work for all ocean critters.

Animals that cannot swim away because they are too slow or rely on camouflage instead of speed, are popular with photographers because you can take your time for a picture. Frogfishes, seahorses, nudibranchs, scorpionfishes … never had to cope with humans and cameras, so they don’t have any defence against them. Some of the poor diver behaviour I have seen seems relatively harmless, like gently coaxing an animal in a better position. But it can go as far as smacking Rhinopias around to daze them so they will sit still, pulling of arms of feather stars to get pictures of the fish living inside them, or breaking off seafans with pygmy seahorses on them and bringing them up to shallow water so divers can spend more time taking pictures. In these extreme cases, diver behaviour can lead to serious harm or even the death of rare animals.

Froggie yawn

Pictures of interesting behaviour like this yawning frogfish (Antennarius commersoni) are popular, but the yawn might actually be a sign of distress.

To a large extent it remains unknown what the effects of diver manipulation are, though it is clear to see that it at the very least stresses animals. I am currently working on a project to find out which negative diver behaviours around critters are most common and how it effects the animals. The goal is to enable the dive industry to focus on preventing the behaviours which have the highest impact.

While most divers don’t approve of this unethical behaviour, industry leaders like organisers of photo competitions or dive centres still seem reluctant to admit there are serious ethical issues in underwater photography. Maybe out of fear of giving underwater photography a bad name, or out of fear to make less profit when strict rules are applied. What we need is a change in mentality from divers and industry leaders. Well known photographers like Dr. Alex Tattersall and Josef Litt are increasingly making themselves heard to set the right example. Organisations like Greenfins work closely with dive operators to improve destructive dive practices. A lot of this unethical behaviour can and will disappear with the support of divecentres, dive magazines and role models from the underwater photography community. So if you enjoy taking pictures underwater, consider signing this petition that asks for higher ethical standards in dive magazines and photo competitions.

Blue-ringed Octopus: cuteness with a twist

I am definitely not the first person to write about the Blue-ringed Octopus, and once you’ve seen one for yourself it is quite understandable that people get excited about them. Blue-ringed Octopus are probably one of the only invertebrates you can call “cute”. With their small size, interesting behaviour and iridescent blue rings they look like something out of a cartoon. Add the intriguing fact that these animals are also one of the world’s most venomous animals, and it becomes logical that people are interested in these critters.

Blue-ringed Octopuses are several species in the genus “Hapalochlaena“, depending on which source you check, there are anything between 3 to 10 species. They are all small octopuses, with the biggest one (Hapalochlaena maculosa) growing to only 15cm (body + arms). They are found from the centre of the Indian Ocean to the west of the Pacific Ocean. While their colours might make you think they belong in similarly colourful tropical reefs, they are actually more frequently found in the temperate waters of southern Australia.

A fact that is repeated very often is just how venomous these little guys are. So I won’t spend too much time on it here, but if you want to read more about it check out this link to learn all about the technical toxic details. The short version is: if you get bitten, you’d better hope to have someone nearby who is highly skilled in CPR. One of the more fascinating effects that occur when bitten is “locked in syndrome“, where you appear to be dead, but are actually still aware of what is going on. If that and near-certain death doesn’t stop people from harassing them to get a nice picture, I don’t know what will 😉 .

The most conspicuous features of the Blue-ringed Octopus, its blue rings, are actually hardly visible for most of the time. When you find one while diving and you don’t bother it too much, they look like any other well camouflaged octopus. The blue rings are a warning signal they only show when spooked or threatened. The mechanism of how they show those rings is a really neat one. The rings are pigmented cells that are usually covered by muscles that are contracted above them. It is only when the octopus relaxes those muscles that the blue rings show. Like a blanket that’s pulled away when unveiling a work of art. For more details, check out this paper.

One of the most interesting things I could dig up about this critter is about the way they mate. It turns out that Blue-ringed Octopuses can’t tell the difference between males and females! Males will try to mate with any other Blue-ringed Octopus they encounter, pouncing (that’s the technical term, trust me) on the potential partner and inserting their hectocotylus into the mantle cavity of the partner. It’s only after they insert this modified mating arm into the other octopus, that they can tell if their partner is in fact female or not. If the partner turns out to be another male, they amicably part ways, no harm done. In case they get lucky and their partner is a female, the male clings on for a long time: usually more than 90 minutes, but sometimes to over 4 hours! As a matter of fact, it seems the male tries to hang on as long as the female allows it, only breaking contact when forcefully removed by the female. If you are interested in the love life of small octopuses, you can read the original study here.

There is a lot more to find out of the Blue-ringed Octopus, such as the very basic question “How many species are out there?”. Considering that this animal is one of the most popular critters in muck dive tourism, it is surprising how little we really know about them. For my research I mostly look at fish, though I am always on the lookout to see what the best places are to find and study other interesting species. So who knows, I might just have a closer look at them in the future.

Best of Dauin_Blue ringed octopus_small.jpg

Photo: Maarten De Brauwer