Valentine special: Sex on the sand

In the aftermath of valentine’s day, I figured a post about nautical naughtiness was suitable. Popular media such as romantic comedies, reality tv-shows or more dubious videos available on the internet might have you believe that a moonlit fondle on a tropical beach is the highlight of romance. They are, however, very much mistaken! Late night walks on the beach turning into passionate, steamy scenes of desire and lust are in fact the best way to discover that sex and sand really don’t mix well. No matter how hard you try, sand will get where you absolutely don’t want it to get. But for creatures that spend their entire lives on soft sediments there is no way around it. They have no choice but to deal with the gritty truth that is sex on sand. As you can imagine, this blog is not going to be a pretty story, but if you think you can handle it, here is how things go down in the muck…

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A small male frogfish (Antennarius pictus) risking his life to get closer to a larger female

Getting started with one my favourites, frogfishes, immediately proves my point on how difficult romancing is on the sand. As in humans, competition for females is fierce, but competition is made worse because frogfish are usually quite rare, so there aren’t many females around. The result is that males will often stalk a female for multiple days or even weeks, waiting until she might be ready to mate. This is a very risky strategy though. At best, the larger female will reject a male by pushing him away or swimming off. At its worst, the grumpy female might decide to eat the male! It sure would make Tinder a lot more exciting if this trend would catch on in humans. Have a look at a cannibalistic frogfish below (Video by Albert Kang).

When the female frogfish is in the mood however, the male will gently put its pectoral fin on her belly when they’re almost ready to mate. He’ll prod her until she’s ready, at which point the female swims up, partially pushed by the male, and releases her eggs. The male then releases his semen over the eggs, after which the now fertilised eggs drift off, forming a sort of raft until the young frogfish hatch. The attentive blog-reader will have noticed that frogfish also avoid the sand when mating, clever! Here is a rather explicit video of two hairy frogfish in action (video by BlueWaterLife1)

Unlike frogfish, the blue ringed octopus wastes no time on small talk or courtship. Male blue ringed octopuses just pounce upon any opportunity, inserting their hectocotylus (scientific slang for “penis-arm”) in any other blue ringed octopus they encounter. The problem is that males unfortunately can’t tell the difference between males or females. So they will try any octopus and only know if they hit the jackpot or got themselves into a rather embarrassing situation until after attempting to copulate (not unlike some drunk male tourists in dodgy bars in Thailand or the Philippines). The unfortunate males on the receiving end don’t seem to take it too badly and do not react aggressively, preferring to wait passively until the mistake becomes obvious. The females however are more feisty and tend to finish the act by “forcefully pulling the males from their body“, occasionally attacking or even killing and eating the males (is it me or am I seeing a trend here?). The actual deed takes on average 90 minutes, but I think we can all agree it hugely lacks in romanticism.

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A blue ringed octopus on the prowl. For what I don’t know, and turns out neither does he…

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Male Thorny seahorse (Hippocampus histrix) showing off its pregnant belly

Seahorses are more romantic, forming stable couples that sometimes stay together for life. The couples greet each other every morning by doing a little dance. When mating their dance gets more elaborate and ends up with both fish swimming up in the water-column and doing the act at the highest point of their dance. But then it gets a bit kinky, as it is the female who penetrates the male! She deposits her eggs in the male’s pouch, who then fertilises the eggs, gets pregnant and gives birth to baby seahorses. Shortly after giving birth the couple mates again (within as little as 30 minutes for pygmy seahorses!), and the males gets pregnant all over again. No rest for these little guys!

At least for nudibranchs life is a bit simpler, there is no such thing as a male or female nudibranch, since they are both at the same time. It is believed that being hermaphrodites (simultaneously male and female) is an adaptation to being rare and not being able to move very far during their lifetime. After all, you wouldn’t want to spend half of your life on your own, getting increasingly horny, to then finally meet a single other individual of your species and find out you can’t reproduce with them. So when nudibranchs mate, they usually get pregnant and make the other one pregnant in one go, talk about efficiency. Being efficient at mating does not mean mating is a boring occasion. Nudibranchs are some of the most deviant critters in the ocean. They occasionally indulge in mating aggregations (aka orgies),  S&M (most of their penises have backward pointing spines), mating with different species than our own (a slug’s a slug), and some species even practice protandry (adults mating with juveniles). But it gets even worse….

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Nubibranch sex: These Gymnodoris nudibranchs clearly show how both animals penetrate each other at the same time

Some species amputate their own penis after mating, mostly because pulling out is just too much effort with those backwards pointing spines. They do have spares and the amputated penis regrows, so no harm done. In what is probably one of the most bizarre cases of sex on the sand, a species of Siphopteron-slugs uses a part of its forked penis to stab its partner through the head during mating! You read that correctly, they use an adapted penis to stab each other in.the.head while having sex. Not the mouth, not any other orifice, the head, right above the eyes. As if that’s not enough, they even inject prostate fluid into the head as well. A process beautifully coined as “cephalo-traumatic secretion transfer”. Call it what you want, this stuff is a bit too kinky for my liking. Oh, and the reason why? You guessed it…we don’t know, although researchers have suggested it might change the behaviour of the receiving slug, go figure…

As you see, sex on the sand is a lot more complicated (some might argue interesting) than in more conventional places. Try to remember that during your next romantic walk on the beach.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Photo Story: Hidden Treasures Amongst the Muck – Guestblog by Luke Gordon

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Time to kick of December with a new guestblog, this one by none other than my good friend and science hobbit Luke Gordon! Luke is a very talented photographer whom I’ve been having ocean adventures with for many years. He is currently based in Canada, but continues his photography work there. Increasingly he uses his art as more than mere beautiful pictures, but instead uses it to tell important stories about ocean conservation issues. You really should have a look at his site, but until you do, here is an introduction to his most recent story.


Diverting the majority of my photography work towards conservation photo journalism has been an incredibly rewarding experience so far. I am very lucky to have met various people & organisations over the years which has now allowed me to get up close and personal to certain issues such as, establishing sustainable fisheries in Fiji, and now looking at salmon enhancement projects in British Columbia, (and of course Maarten, the first person worldwide to be dedicating a PhD solely to the soft sediment world & the creatures living there).

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A ‘barren habitat’ could not be further from the truth, life here as evolved in the most intricate of ways, mimicry is the name of the game on the muck slopes. Species such as this Giant Frogfish (Antennarius commersoni) have evolved near perfect mimicry of sponges as they sit in wait for unsuspecting prey.

The critters of the muck for me, and I am sure for the large majority of photographers who have experienced this world, are the perfect definition of evolution and beauty of the natural world. Everything about this underwater paradise captivates me. From the story of its discovery to the most elusive of its organisms, muck is a magical world.

Let us start at the discovery, muck was discovered by chance by Bob Halstead, a man credited for pioneering the liveaboard industry and diving in Papua New Guinea, the story goes that whilst on a liveaboard in PNG the boat had moored up in Milne Bay for the night where it was calm, Bob Halstead still wanted to go for a night dive and despite the attempted dissuasion from local dive masters they went for a dive right beneath the boat. As the dive masters had predicted the bottom was just endless sand (soft sediment) from where the name of ‘muck’ originated, however the dive masters were wrong about one thing, and that is that there was no life down there, quite the contrary, what they found were creatures that looked like extra terrestrials, creatures that even the like had never been seen before, muck diving was born.

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A tiny, recently settled juvenile Ornate Ghost Pipefish hangs above a crinoid. Even though this little critter doesn’t know it, the large ‘creature’ in the background is paving the way forward for future research into this unique habitat.

This all happened in the 1980’s, the diving community took a while to catch on, but boy has it caught on, muck diving now is a booming industry which supports thousands of people across Southeast Asia, as Maarten’s research will soon shed more light on. Divers and photographers (and now researchers of course) alike will travel half way across the world just to glimpse these weird and wonderful creatures, and these creatures are not behemoths like the African mammals, no, they are tiny critters which have evolved perfect mimicry and other adaptions to survive in a sandy desert, perfect photography subjects.

So how does a photo story fit into all of this?

Luckily enough for me (well not that lucky, I am referred to as a science hobbit by Mr. De Brauwer, yes, there is an earlier blog about this!) I was able to help Maarten with a large proportion of his fieldwork in North Sulawesi & Bali, Indonesia and on Negros, The Philippines. This gave me a fantastic opportunity to tell a story about this industry and now, the research being conducted. Currently it is quite staggering how many divers travel to muck locations around the world and it is equally staggering how little we know about the ecology, abundances and diversities of these creatures and the threats they face. This is a huge problem, as I have already mentioned thousands of people now rely on the jobs created by the industry and the money the industry brings into countries such as Indonesia and The Philippines. On top of this there is also no baseline data outlining the abundances and diversities of the creatures that have traditionally existed in these habitats, we have no way of gauging how these habitats are responding to the huge increase of direct and indirect anthropogenic pressures.

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Arjay Salac is a dive master and one of the figure heads for Atmosphere Resort & Spa’s dive centre. Arjay is from a family of fishermen who live on the adjacent plot of land to the resort, after initially being employed as a landscaper when the resort first opened Arjay took a keen interest in the dive world going on. Enthusiasm and work ethic allowed him to move into a boat crewman position. Through continued excellence in the role he was offered the opportunity of being put through the resorts PADI dive master scholarship. Needless to say Arjay excelled and six years later is now one of the most respected dive guides in the area, eagle eyes are a description which fit Arjay perfectly.

This story is a way for everybody, diver or not, to understand how and why these organisms are so special, the pressures they face and how these tiny organisms have changed the lives of so many people across coastlines in Southeast Asia, and now, what research is being conducted to answer the many, many unanswered questions we have.

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A Juvenile frogfish is measured after being caught in one of the S.M.U.R.F‘s. Frogfish, like many of the cryptobenthic organisms, are still unknown to science, this particular individual is most likely a new, undescribed species of frogfish (Antennatus sp.). Note from Maarten: this animal was returned to the ocean alive and well

This blog shows a few small extracts of the story, please visit my site for the full photographic story.

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The future generation of instructors, dive masters and dive guides.

Fluo time

If this isn’t the first time you’ve read this blog, you probably know I am interested in the phenomenon of biofluorescence. I’ve previously talked written about what it is and what it might be used for. In the near future I’ll be tell you all about the details what I was actually doing. But I realized I haven’t shared any pictures recently that show just how beautiful and otherworldly it can be. So here is a random selection of fluo shots I took over the last two years. Enjoy!

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A bubble snail (Hydatina physis) photographed in Lembeh Strait, Indonesia

 

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Thorny seahorse (Hippocampus histrix) in Bima Bay, Indonesia

 

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West Australian Seahorse (Hippocampus subelongatus) in Perth, Australia

 

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Amazing coral in Raja Ampat, Indonesia

 

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Reptilian Snake Eel (Brachysomophis henshawi) in Amed, Indonesia

 

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Lizardfish (Synodus sp.) in Lembeh Strait, Indonesia

 

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Cockatoo Waspfish (Ablabys sp.) in Lembeh Strait, Indonesia

 

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Sea spider (Pycnogonid sp.) in Tulamben, Indonesia

 

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Painted frogfish (Antennarius pictus) in Lembeh Strait, Indonesia

 

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Juvenile Painted frogfish (Antennarius pictus) in Dauin, Philippines)

 

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Barred moray (Echidna polyzona) in Nusa Kode, Indonesia

 

Flamboyant Cuttlefish

It’s been a long time since I put a critter in the spotlights, so it’s time for one of my personal favourites: the Flamboyant Cuttlefish! I am definitely not the only one to like this amazing little animal, for most divers it is high in the top 10 of critters to see. With good reason as well, Flamboyant Cuttlefish are one of the most beautiful and intriguing inhabitants of sandy dive sites.

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Flamboyant Cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) striking a pose

The small cephalopod many divers call “Flamboyant Cuttlefish” are in fact two species: the Flamboyant Cuttlefish (Metasepia pfefferi) and the Paintpot Cuttlefish (Metasepia tullbergi). The first one lives in Malaysia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and the north of Australia. The Paintpot Cuttlefish is found further north, from the Gulf of Thailand all the way up to southern Japan. Both species are classic muck dive critters, they only occur on muddy or sandy bottoms, so you will have to move away from coral reef to encounter them.

flamboyant-cuttlefish3So why does this animal deserve the effort of searching sandy plains for days on end, in the hope catching a glimpse of it? To start with (the name is a bit of a give-away) they are very flamboyant critters. We are talking yellows, pinks, blacks and whites, all at once! If that wasn’t enough, they often change their colours into “traveling waves”, even more so than normal cuttlefish or octopuses. From my experience, smaller Flamboyant Cuttlefishes have the brightest colours and make the most extravagant displays. When I write small, I do mean really small: adults do not grow much bigger than 8cm. They ideally sized Flamboyant Cuttlefish for the best colour-show  would be around 3-5 cm!

If finding an animal that size seems difficult, you might also want to consider the following. When they are not disturbed, hunting, or mating, Flamboyant Cuttlefish are anything but flamboyant. In their “standard” state, they blend in perfectly with their background, so they will be a mottled grey, brown, or black. For this reason some divers or photographers are tempted to disturb the animal to better see its colours. It is obvious that this is a bad idea, as it will stress out the cuttlefish. Be patient  instead, observe it for a while and you might even be rewarded by seeing it hunt small shrimp, lay eggs, or even mate!

Another thing that is special about them is that they do not swim, but walk across the bottom. To do so they use two of their arms and an adaptation of their mantle. They can swim, but only do so when they’re startled and over short distances. I could easily spend an entire dive watching these guys wander across the seafloor, little blobs of colour on a quest to eat as many shrimp as possible. It might be because of the awkward way they walk, but I always imagine them to be mildly grumpy animals. A bit like an old man with stiff joints who can’t walk that well, grumbling to himself about how the terrible weather…

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A juvenile Flamboyant cuttlefish (M. pfefferi) walking across the rubble

An interesting mystery surrounding these animals is whether or not they are toxic. Their colours would suggest some form of aposematic colouration, in the same way nudibranchs advertise their toxicity with bright colours. Some authors have even suggested flamboyant cuttlefish might mimic nudibranchs such as the Ocellate Phyllidia (Phyllidia ocellata). I have however, not read a single bit of conclusive evidence of this. It seems to be one of these “facts” people have assumed, written about and then it just got copied. To date there seem to be no papers out their describing whether or not Flamboyant Cuttlefish really are toxic, and which toxin they would produce. If anyone would have come across that information, I would be very grateful if you could share it with me and the rest of the world.

As is often the case with small critters, we don’t know very much about them. But that doesn’t have to stop us enjoying looking at them. Which is why I couldn’t resist adding a video of one of these guys. The title is a bit too sensational, but the footage is great, enjoy!